Biryani is originated in Persia and had taken a couple of different routes to arrive in India. Biryani is derived from the farsi word 'Birian' which means 'Fried before Cooking'.
The Biryani is made with a blend of aromatic spices, Basmati rice and a choice of meat: lamb, chicken or fish in a rich sauce. Alternatively, it can also be made with vegetables.
Biryani is seasoned with number of ways. Spices like cardamom and cinnamon add aroma. Bay leaves, fresh coriander and mint leaves can really bring the dish to life. Today, biryani has been very much adapted to individual and personal styles. Any Asian restaurant will serve you biryani as one of their specialty dishes and you can tell a lot about the heritage and background of a person in the way they cook certain foods, and biryani is no different.
Based on the name, and cooking style (Dum), it could have come from Persia via Afghanistan to North India. It could have also been brought by the Arab traders via Arabian Sea to Calicut. In 1856, British deposed Nawab Wajid Ali Shah in Calcutta, giving rise to Calcutta Biryani. Aurangzeb installed Nizam-ul-mulk as the Asfa Jahi ruler of Hyderabad, as well as a 'Nawab of Arcot' to oversee Aaru Kaadu region (Six Forrests) south of Hyderabad. These gave rise to Hyderabadi Biryani and Arcot Biryani. Then the Biryani spread to Mysore by Tipu Sultan of Carnatic. Needless to say it was a royal dish for Nawabs and Nizams.
Other types of Biryani include Turkish Pilaf, Iranian Biryani, Quaboli, Malaysian Biryani, Indonesian Biryani, Sindhi Biryani Idiyappam Biryani from Sri Lanka, and and Kashmiri Yakhni Biryani.